The Research Behind Complex Instruction
Three principles of CI, when simultaneously enacted, support equitable participation and increased student learning (Cohen & Lotan, 1997):
 Multiple Ability Curriculum – provide curricular tasks that are openended, rich in multiple mathematical abilities, and support learning of important mathematical concepts and skills central to a big idea.
 Instructional Strategies – develop autonomy of and interdependence within each group through the use of norms, roles, and teacher interventions.
 Status and Accountability – raise intellectual expectations for all students, hold individuals and small groups accountable for learning, and intervene in status issues.
Complex Instruction Resources
Books and research behind Complex Instruction:

Additional articles, research and resources about Complex Instruction:
 Shifting Students' Beliefs about Competence by Integrating Mathematics Strengths into Tasks and Participation Norms by Lisa M. Jilk and Sarah Erickson in Access and Equity: Promoting High Quality Mathematics in Grades 6–8 (NCTM). Edited by Fernandes A., Crespo S., Civil M.
 Supporting Teacher Noticing of Students' Mathematical Strengths by Lisa M. Jilk in the Mathematics Teacher Educator (NCTM) describes how video clubs can be used to support teachers to see and hear their students' math strengths in the moments when they are learning.
 Assessments That Promote Collaborative Learning by Maika Watanabe and Laura Evans in the Mathematics Teacher (NCTM)
 How A StrengthsBased Approach to Math Redefines Who Is "Smart" KQED's Mind/Shift, Katrina Schwartz, reports on the use of Complex Instruction to support students' beliefs in themselves as math learners.
 Stanford Graduate School of Education Complex Instruction Webpage: complexinstruction.stanford.edu/resources